- Clark, Geoffrey. 2011. “Identity and alternative versions of the past in New Zealand.” Pacific Island Heritage: Archaeology, Identity & Community, pp. 5-16. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University (ANU).
During the 1990s, New Zealand / Aotearoa experienced tumultuous debate over indigenous land rights, and the use of Māori culture and language, debate which was associated with the settlement of historical and contemporary grievances between the Crown and Māori. The study of New Zealand’s human past during this period became politicised and problematic because different versions of the past could be mobilised to support various agendas and cultural groupings. The redistribution of state-owned resources to Māori through the Waitangi Tribunal process and settlement negotiations with the government gave added intensity to debates about ownership and culturally appropriate use of the past, as did the fact that, with several notable exceptions, most professionally trained historians and archaeologists were European descent.