- Bishop, Russel. 2003. “Changing Power Relations in Education: Kaupapa Māori Messages for “Mainstream” Education in Aotearoa / New Zealand.” Comparative Education Vol. 39, No. 2, Special Number (27): Indigenous Education: New Possibilities, Ongoing Constraints, pp. 221-238. Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Drawing on the example of indigenous Māori pedagogical and research principles in Aotearoa / New Zealand, this paper explores how still widely held ‘deficit’ notions of Māori students can be addressed and replaced by an alternative model that emphasises empowerment, co-construction and the critical importance of cultural recognition. This model constitutes the classroom as a place where young people’s sense-making processes (cultures) are incorporated and enhanced, where the existing knowledges of young people-particularly Māori are seen as ‘acceptable’ and ‘official’, and where the teacher interacts with students in such a way that new knowledge is co-created. Such a classroom will generate very different interaction and participation patterns and educational outcomes from a classroom where knowledge is seen as something that the teacher makes sense of and then passes onto students.